Monday, 28 January 2013

Oil refinery

An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas.

Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. The fractions at the top of the distillation column have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom. The heavy bottom fractions are often cracked into lighter, more useful products. 

Gas (also known as liquified petroleum gas (LPG))

Gasoline (also known as petrol)
Kerosene (also known as jet aircraft fuels)
Lubricating oil
Heavy gas oil
Residual (examples are asphalt and tar)