Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. The fractions at the top of the distillation column have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom. The heavy bottom fractions are often cracked into lighter, more useful products.
Gas (also known as liquified petroleum gas (LPG))
Gasoline (also known as petrol)Kerosene (also known as jet aircraft fuels)
Heavy gas oil
Residual (examples are asphalt and tar)