Tuesday, 10 September 2013

Assimilation and integration

What is the difference between assimilation and integration?

Assimilation means that migrants must adapt as much as possible and adopt the national culture. Requiring them to adopt the majority's language, customs and 'values'. 
Assimilation means absorbing minorities into the ways of the majority. 

Integration mens that migrants take an active part in society.
Integration, by contrast, requires acceptance of a country's laws, of human rights such as freedom of speech, and of basic democratic rights, but does not require the eradication of all cultural differences or group-identities; it is conceived of as a two-way process, through which both the majority and the minorities influence and change one another, and in which differences can be peacefully accommodated as long is there a common commitment to living together.

The word segregation means separation. Segregation is separation of humans into (ethnic) groups in daily life.

Monday, 9 September 2013

Dependency ratio

Dependency ratio is the ratio between those of working age and those of non-working age. 
The dependency ratio tells us how many young people (age group 0 to 19) and older people (age group 66 and older) depend on people of working age (age group 20 to 65). 

The dependency ratio is worked out with this formula:

number of 0 to 19 years-olds + number of people aged 65+
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- x 100%
                    number of 20 to 65 years-olds

Example: Pakistan
A worked example should make this clearer. Pakistan, which is a developing country, has 41% of its population less than 20, and 4% over 65. This makes 55% (100 - (41+4)) between the ages of 15 and 64.

Dependency ratio of Pakistan

     (41) + (4)
= ---------------- x 100

= ----- x 100

=  81.8

Example: New Zealand
New Zealand, a developed country, has 23% of its population less than 20, and 12% over 65. This makes 65% between 15 and 64.

Dependency ratio of New Zealand

     (23) + (12)
= ---------------- x 100

= ----- x 100

=  53.8

Countries that have a high dependency ratio have more people who are not of working age, and fewer who are working and paying taxes. The higher the number, the more people that need looking after.