Monday, 10 November 2014

European Distribution Center

A distribution center for a set of products is a warehouse or other specialized building, often with refrigeration or air conditioning, which is stocked with products (goods) to be redistributed to retailers, to wholesalers, or directly to consumers.

Goods arrive and are stored in a distribution center in varying types of storage locations and containers suited to the product characteristics and the amount of product to be transported or stored. 

Another way to look at a distribution center is to see it as a production or manufacturing operation. Goods arrive in bulk, they are stored until needed, retrieved, and assembled into shipments. 

The following is a list of some of the names and characteristics of common storage containers:

  • Shipping containers are used for the efficient transportation of goods. Standards specify the volume and dimensions of containers to facilitate efficient handling.

  • Pallets are one of the most commonly used means to store and move product in a distribution center. There are many specialized devices used to handle pallets (forklift truck, pallet jack, and Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS). Pallets are stored on the floor, may be stacked, and may be stored in pallet racking.

  • Cases and Cartons are boxes usually containing many items. In distribution centers there is a generally accepted distinction made between the terms "carton" and "case", although both are boxes. Goods are received and stored in cartons, while goods are shipped in cases. 

  • Totes are reusable containers used to hold and transport goods.

Wednesday, 5 November 2014

The difference between deciduous and coniferous

Deciduous woodland
Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off". Deciduous plants lose their leaves for part of the year. In colder lands, leaf loss coincides with winter. In warmer lands, such as tropical, subtropical and arid lands, deciduous plants may lose their leaves during dry seasons or during times when there are changes in rainfall. 

Coniferous woodland
Coniferous woodland, c
oniferous plants keep their leaves year round. Most plants in tropical rain forests keep their leaves all year, gradually replacing them as they fall with age. Fewer plants are green year-round in cooler climates, but conifers are dominant when the climate becomes too cold for broad-leafed plants. 

Whereas deciduous plants lose their leaves as an adaptation to cold or dry seasons, coniferous plants keep their leaves year round as an adaptation to low nutrient levels (so that they don't have to expend nutrients in the creation of new leaves). 

Monday, 3 November 2014

Mainport Rotterdam

Vessel arrivals (ships visiting the harbour of Rotterdam) 34.404 in 2010.

Annual cargo tonnage 429,9 million tons in 2010.

Wet bulk 209,4 million tons in 2010.
  • crude oil and
  • chemicals.

Dry bulk 84,6 million tons in 2010.
  • coal and 
  • ores.

Containers 112,3 million tons in 2010.