Thursday, 28 February 2013

Informal sector

The informal sector or informal economy

The informal sector or informal economy is that part of an economy that is not taxed, monitored by any form of government, or included in any gross national product (GNP), unlike the formal economy. 

Other terms used to refer to the informal sector can include 

  • The black market 
  • The shadow economy
  • Clandestine Activities
  • The hidden Sector
  • The informal Economy
  • Informal Opportunities
  • The invisible Sector
  • One-Person Enterprise
  • The parallel economy
  • The shadow Economy
  • The underground Economy
  • The unobserved Economy
  • The unofficial Economy

Many of the names by which the 'informal' sector is called - as listed below - essentially characterizes it in terms of what it is not: it is not the formal sector (non-formal), it is not controlled by the government (non-plan, hidden, unofficial, unrecorded), it is not legal (illegal, black, shadow) and it is not taxable (unrecorded, parallel).

Examples of the informal sector

Flower Vendor in India.

Street Vendor in Pakistan.

Cigarette vendor in the Philippines.

Farmer's Choice Sausage Cart. These carts have a water panel directly underneath the sausages. Inside of the cart there is a charcoal heater that keeps the water warm and thus the sausages are both warm and juicy.

Mobile phone scratch card vendor in Nigeria.

Informal Recycling Industry.

Roadside Bicycle Repair.

Factors affecting distribution and density of population

Mindmap : Factors affecting distribution and density of population.

Glaciers in Greenland

Tropical rainforest - Amazone river basin.

Dutch landscape.

Unfertile soil.

Harvest time.

High mountain peaks in Switserland.

Building tunnels in Switserland.

Infrastructure in Switserland.

Wednesday, 27 February 2013

Harmful effects of ecosystem change on human health

Harmful effects of ecosystem change on human health.

Sunday, 24 February 2013

The consequences of global climate change in Europe

Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment for the main biogeographical regions of Europe and the rest of the world. 

Friday, 8 February 2013

Labour intensive and Labour extensive

Labour intensive
  • Labour intensive means use of manpower in production with little of technology while capital intensive means use of technology in production of a unit of output.
  • Labour refers to the people required to carry out a process.
  • Labour-intensive processes are those that require a relatively high level of labour compared to capital investment.

Labour extensive
  • Labour extensive means use of equipment, machinery and vehicles.
  • Capital-intensive processes are those that require a relatively high level of capital investment compared to the labour cost.
  • These processes are more likely to be highly automated and to be used to produce on a large scale.

Green Revolution

Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives that increased agriculture production around the world.

The initiatives credited with saving over a billion people from starvation, involved:

  • the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, 
  • the expansion of irrigation infrastructure, 
  • the modernization of management techniques, 
  • the distribution of hybridized seeds, 
  • synthetic fertilizers, and 
  • pesticides to farmers.

Family planning

Family planning is the planning of when to have children, and the use of birth control and other techniques to implement such plans.

What is the difference between commercial farming and subsistence farming?

Subsistence Farming

Commercial Farming

Subsistence Farming is when the main purpose of the farm is to grow food and other agricultural products (for instance, wool for making clothing) to meet the needs of the farming family or to barter with others for products that are not grown or made on the farm. Very little money is spent or earned in a subsistence farming enterprise.

Commercial Farming is when the main purpose of the farm is to sell agricultural products for a cash profit. Choices about what crops or animals to raise and how much to raise are determined by the market, not by the needs of the farmers and their families.

In other words,
In other words,
subsistence farming: Is when farmers grow crops for the good of the own family.
commercial farming: Is when farmers grow crops and sell to others.

When produce is consumed by an individual farmer or his family, or sold or exchanged among a small group, it is known as Subsistence agriculture.

Friday, 1 February 2013

Different map projections of the world

Map projections are necessary for creating maps. A map projection is a method of representing the surface of a sphere on a flat surface (plane, paper).

Basically, the world is a sphere (the shape of a ball), and a map is a flat surface. It's difficult to take a sphere and attempt to form it into a flat surface, since a sphere is a curved object, and a map is completely flat.

All map projections distort the surface in some fashion. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections.

World map projection, Europe and Africa centered.

World map projection, Americas centered.

World map projection, Pacific Rim centered.

World map projection, Khartoum (Africa) centered.