Wednesday, 18 April 2012

Industrial revolution

VIDEO - Turning Points in History - Industrial Revolution

VIDEO - The industrial revolution

Central business district (CBD)

The CBD in the city centre is where most business and commerce is located.

Features that identify the CBD
  • ·         High/multi-storey buildings.
  • ·         Expensive land values.
  • ·         Department stores or specialist shops, like jewellers.
  • ·         Shopping malls and pedestrian precincts.
  • ·         Cultural/historical buildings, museums and castles.
  • ·         Offices, finance, banks, administration, town hall (business sector).
  • ·         Bus and railway stations (transport centres).
  • ·         Multi-storey car parks.

The CBD is located in the centre because it is:
  • ·         a central location for road/railways to converge
  • ·         the most accessible location for workers
  • ·         accessible to most people for shops and businesses

The Burgess model

Geographers have put together models of land use to show how a 'typical' city is laid out. One of the most famous of these is the Burgess or concentric zone model.
This model is based on the idea that land values are highest in the centre of a town or city. This is because competition is high in the central parts of the settlement. This leads to high-rise, high-density buildings being found near theCentral Business District (CBD), with low-density, sparse developments on the edge of the town or city.

Settlement hierarchies

If we group and classify a number of settlements according to their size and shape, the result is settlement hierarchy.

As you move up the hierarchy, the size of the settlement and the distance between similar sized settlements increases. As you can see from the diagram above, there are more cities than conurbations, more towns than cities and more villages than towns.

The number of services that a settlement provides increases with settlement size.
Small settlements will only provide low-order services such as a post offices, doctors and newsagents. Large towns, cities and conurbations will provide low and high-order services such as leisure centres, chain stores and hospitals.
Larger settlements and conurbations have a much larger sphere of influence than smaller ones. This means they attract people from a wider area because of the facilities they offer. Cities such as London have a global sphere of influence, whereas a small hamlet or village may only have a sphere of influence of a couple of kilometres.
Services such as department stores selling high order goods have a higher threshold than those selling low order goods such as newsagents. This means they need a higher number of people to support them and make them profitable, therefore they will only be found in larger settlements. It also means that there are fewer big department stores than small newsagents.
The range of a service or product is the maximum distance people are prepared to travel to purchase it. The range of a newspaper is much lower than an item of furniture for example.