Section 16 - Water in the Netherlands
40% of the Netherlands is below sea level.
The struggle against the sea / water (the fight against).
New landscapes are created.
- terps = protection against the rising sea level.
- dikes = initially only used as protection, later more offensive, to reclaim land. For example salt meadows (= kwelders) outside the dikes were reclaimed.
- - sea polders
- - peat polders
- - “droogmakerijen”
Problem = outside water can seep through the dikes into the polder.
More space for water
In the past = ‘watermanagement’ = to keep the land dry.
In the future = ‘watermanagement‘ = water will be retained, areas will be deliberately flooded.
Why ? Climate change – (1) summers drier, winters wetter. (2) sea level is rising.
Space for rivers
- to keep the land dry water was discharged by (1) digging ditches and canals or (2) strainghtening out streams (3) pumping stations.
- in the future water will even be retained, certain areas will be deliberately flooded.
A permanent coast
- dikes must be reinforced due to the rising sea level.
- sand replenishment = due to erosion.
- dehydration (verdroging) drop in the ground water level.
- extinction of certain vegetation = drought.
- water table has dropped by 30 cm.
- farming (water extraction for irrigation)
- drinking water (water extraction)
- industry (water extraction)
- asphalting = less water can subside into the underground (deceased infiltration / seep through)