Cartography or map-making is the study and practice of crafting representations of the Earth upon a flat surface, and one who makes maps is called a cartographer.
Road maps are perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical and nautical charts, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps.
A topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping. A topographic map shows both natural and man-made features.
Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show:
- a title,
- a key,
- north arrow and
- a scale.