Sunday, 7 July 2013

E - list of geographical terms and definitions

Earthquake: A sudden movement of Earth's crust due to subterranean causes, which is often accompanied by a rumbling noise is known as earthquake.
Earthquakes: A movement or tremor, of the Earth’s surface.
Ebb Tide: A receding tide is called an ebb tide.
Ecology: A study of relationships between environment and the organisms living together is called ecology.
Economic Activity: This is about industry, jobs, earning a living and producing wealth.
Economic Base: a wide economic base is typical of MEDCs where many industries contribute to generating wealth. A narrow economic base is typical of LEDCs where only a few industries contribute.
Economic Development: the generating of wealth through the development of industry.
Economic Infrastructure: transport networks; gas, electricity, water grids; sewerage systems, etc.
Economic Inputs: see Human Factors/Inputs.
Economic Migrant: person leaving her/his native country to seek better economic opportunities (jobs) and so settle temporarily in another country.
Economies of Scale: savings made as a result of large-scale production, through buying in bulk, division of labour etc.
Economies of Scale: the cost savings gained by production on a large scale.
Ecosystem: It is the ecological community and its environment, functioning as one whole unit.
Ecotone: A transitional zone of two communities having 'characteristic species of each other'.
Edaphic: It relates to soil rather than climate. Soil properties that influence plant growth and distribution.
Effective Precipitation: Effective precipitation is actual precipitation after losses by evaporation.
El Nino: The warming of surface water on the western coast of South America, which causes irregular weather patterns is known by the term El Nino. This takes place every 4 to 12 years.
Elevation: The height of a point on the Earth's surface with respect to sea level.
Elliptic: The course of the earth round the sun.
Eluviation: Downward movement of suspended particles in soil when rainfall is more than evaporation is known as eluviation .
Emergent Coast: An emergent coast is defined as the coast where the land level is rising as compared to the sea level.
Emergent coastline: A shoreline resulting from a rise in land surface elevation relative to sea level.
Emergent Plants: Emergent plants are those plants which are rooted in shallow waters and have their growth above the water level.
Emigrant: someone who leaves an area to live elsewhere.
Employment Structure: See Occupational Structure.
Enclave: A tract or territory enclosed within another state or country.
Endogenetic: In a geography glossary, the term endogenetic means, the rocks that are formed beneath the Earth's surface.
Energy Conservation: Energy conservation refers to saving the energy that is used up in the system as it is an exhaustible source of energy.
Energy Source: Any material that acts as fuel is called an energy source. For example, coal, gas, petrol and wood are energy sources.
Energy: The power to do something to give off heat.
Englacial Moraine: moraine carried within the ice itself.
Englacial: In geography terms, englacial means which lies within the glacier.
Enterprise Zones: small run-down inner-city areas and other areas of industrial decline with high unemployment in the UK where financial incentives are available to encourage investment and renewal. The government gives tax concessions to firms, grants for buildings and machinery, removes various planning restrictions and improves communications and infrastructure e.g. London Docklands.
Entrainment: It means to pull or draw along in a current.
Environment: Environment is the totality of conditions, surroundings and organisms living together.
Environment: The natural or physical surroundings where people, plants and animals live.
Environmental Inputs: see Physical Factors/Inputs.
Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs): set up as a result of concern over the influence agriculture can have on the landscape, wildlife and historic features. Grants are available within ESAs to conserve the environment, reduce fertiliser use, restore heather moorland and wetlands, rebuild drystone walls and replant hedgerows.
Epeirogeny: The uplift or depression formed in the Earth's crust, which usually form large areas. For example plateaus and basins.
Ephemeral: A trend which last for a short period is called ephemeral in geography terms.
Epicenter: Epicenter is the exact point of origin of an earthquake.
Equator: An imaginary circle around the Earth halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole; the largest circumference of the Earth.
Equator: An imaginary line around the earth at equal distance from the two poles.
Equator: In geographical terminology, an equator is an imaginary circle drawn around the center of the Earth surface, which divides the planet into two equal spheres.
Equatorial Climate: Rainy and humid conditions around the tropics is known as the equatorial climate.
Erosion Landforms: Landscape features resulting from the wearing away of rock.
Erosion: The process of eroding or of wearing out the surface area is known as soil erosion.
Erosion: The wearing away and removal of rock, soil, etc, by rivers, sea, ice and wind.
Erosion: the wearing away of the bed and banks of the river channel by abrasion, hydraulic action, solution and attrition.
Erosion: the wearing away of the land by rivers, ice sheets, waves and wind.
Erosion: the wearing away of the land by rivers, ice sheets, waves and wind.
Erratic: A boulder that has been carried from its source by a glacier and deposited as the glacier melted. Thus, the boulder is often of a different rock type from surrounding types.
Erratics: rocks which have been transported and deposited by a glacier some distance from their source region.
Eruption: An outburst of volcano is known as eruption.
Escarpment: A steep slope or a ridge which is formed due to erosion is called an escarpment.
Esker: A narrow elongated ridge made from coarse gravel, which is deposited by a flowing water stream is called esker.
Estuary: A wide part of the river near the sea, where the salt water mixes with the freshwater.
Estuary: The broad lower course of a river that is encroached on by the sea and affected by the tides.
Estuary: the tidal mouth of a river where it meets the sea; wide banks of deposited mud are exposed at low-tide.
Estuary: the tidal mouth of a river, with large, flat expanses of mud exposed at low tide.
Ethnic Group: the group of people a person belongs to categorised by race, nationality, language, religion or culture.
Ethnic group: This is a group which is defined by race, religion, nationality or culture.
European Union: A group of European countries working together for the benefit of everyone in the group.
Eutrophication: high nitrate levels combined with phosphates cause excessive plant and algae growth, a deteriorating process that results in loss of oxygen and the biological death of the river.
Eutrophication: In geography terms, eutrophication is a process wherein the water bodies get excess of nutrients which stimulate proliferation of plant growth.
Eutrophication: the process by which fertiliser causes, on reaching rivers and lakes, rapid algae growth and, subsequently, the depletion of oxygen available for fish.
Evaporation The physical process by which a liquid or solid substance is transformed to a gas; the opposite of condensation.
Evaporation: The change of water into vapor is known as evaporation.
Evapotranspiration: The water lost from an area through the combined effects of evaporation from the ground surface and transpiration from the vegetation.
Exfoliation: a form physical weathering that occurs in very warm climates when a rock is repeatedly heated and cooled.
Exotic Species: Exotic species are those species which have been introduced to another geographic region outside its native region.
Exports: goods sold abroad.
Extending Flow: As the downstream distance increases, the velocity of the glacial flow also increases. This is known as extending flow.
Extensive Agriculture: Extensive agriculture refers to the cultivation of large areas with minimum expense on labor.
Extensive Farm: one with low capital inputs; it usually covers a large area and has a low output per hectare.
Extinct volcano: A volcano that is not expected to erupt again. (USGS 2010)
Extinct: No longer be found living on the planet.