Sunday, 7 July 2013

L - list of geographical terms and definitions

L.D.D.C.: London Docklands Development Corporation given the task by the government of clearing large areas of derelict land in London Docks and selling the sites to property developers. The L.D.D.C. was also involved in improvements in infrastructure to attract new industry.
Labour Location: access to skilled labour is a very important factor in the location of modern industry today.
Labour: Workers, employed people.
Labour-intensive: industries where labour costs are high compared to capital costs, e.g. clothing.
Labour-Intensive: where many workers are required; this is typical of LEDC subsistence or peasant farming where there is an absence of advanced machinery.
Lacustrine: The geography term lacustrine refers to lakes, water bodies and biota.
Lagoon: A protected water body which lies between a reef and the coastline is known as lagoon as per geography terms.
Lagoon: a former bay cut off from the sea by a bar.
Lahar: In geography terminology, lahar is the mudflow associated with a volcanic activity.
Lake: A water body lying within the continental mass is termed as lake.
Laminar Flow: Laminar flow is a non-turbulent viscous flow of fluid in geography terms.
Land Breeze: In geography glossary, the breeze which flows from the land to the sea is known as the land breeze.
Land Degradation: the deterioration of the suitability of land for farming due to soil erosion, desertification and salinisation.
Land Reclamation: Improving, recovering or developing land for human use is known as land reclamation in geography terms.
Land Reclamation: areas of land that were once below the sea; the sea has either been blocked off by dykes and the sea water pumped out (e.g. Dutch Polders), or material has been dumped into the sea to raise the level of the seabed until it becomes dry land.
Land Reform: where land is taken away from absentee landlords by the government to sell or rent to farmers who were tenant share-croppers; this encourages an increase in crop yields as the farmers now have the incentive to work harder and make improvements in their land. Land reform also can lead to larger, more profitable farm sizes where the inheritance system of land always being divided between the sons of a family is changed. Any land reform brings intense disagreements and can only work peacefully if governments pay compensation to the former land owners. Land reform often accompanies a package of government-assisted farming improvements, such as irrigation schemes, new storage facilities, new roads, etc.
Land Tenure: how the land is owned e.g. tenant, share-cropper, absentee landlord.
Landfill: A site where domestic, commercial or industrial waste is disposed off is termed as landfill.
Land-locked: countries with no access to a seaport. This is a particular problem for LEDCs, e.g. Zaire and Zambia that are heavily reliant (60% and 98%) on the export of copper.
Landscape: The scenery. What the land looks like
Landslide: A rapid and sudden downward movement of a hill or a mountain mass made up of rocks, sand and gravel is called a landslide.
Lateral blast: A sideways-directed explosion from the side or summit of a volcano.
Lateral erosion: erosion by a river on the outside of a meander channel. It eventually leads to the widening of the valley and the formation of the flood plain.
Lateral Moraine: a narrow band of rock debris which runs along the sides of a glacier resulting from ice erosion of the valley sides and freeze-thaw weathering on the bare rock above.
Latitude: A measure of distance north or south of the equator. One degree of latitude equals approximately 110 kilometers (68 mi). Imaginary lines that cross the surface of the Earth parallel to the Equator, measuring how far north or south of the Equator a place is located.
Latitude: Imaginary horizontal lines on the Earth that run along the equator in both the hemispheres are known as latitudes.
Lava: Molten rock which flows to the Earth during a volcanic eruption is known as lava.
Lava: The term used for magma once it has erupted onto the Earth's surface.
Leaching: A process of soil nutrient removal through the erosive movement and chemical action of water.
Leaching: Leaching is the act of removing soluble minerals from the soil by percolation of liquids.
Lee: The sheltered side of the slope or a mound is known as lee.
Leeward: The side of a land mass sheltered from the wind—the opposite of windward.
Legend: A key to what the symbols or pictures in a map mean.
Legume: A plant, such as the soybean, that bears nitrogen-fixing bacteria on its roots, and thereby increases soil nitrogen content.
Less Developed: A poorer area where there are less communications, services and where people have lower living standards.
Lessivage: The downward movement of clay contents in the soil due to the movement of water is called lessivage.
Levées: river embankments built by deposition as the river floods.
Life Expectancy: the average number of years a person born in a particular country might be expected to live.
Life Expectancy: The average number of years a person can expect to live.
Life-cycle stage: A period of uneven length in which the relative dependence of an individual on others helps define a complex of basic social relations that remains relatively consistent throughout the period.
Light industry: Manufacturing activities that use moderate amounts of partially processed materials to produce items of relatively high value per unit weight (see Heavy Industry).
Light Industry: manufacturing industry which has light raw materials/components and finished products.
Lignite: A low-grade brownish coal of relatively poor heat-generating capacity.
Limestone: A pale coloured rock which is permeable and stores water.
Linear Settlement: a settlement which follows the line of, for example, a road or river.
Literacy Rate: The number of people in a country who can read and write.
Literacy Rate: the proportion of the total population able to read and write.
Lithosphere: The Earth's hard, outermost shell. It comprises the crust and the upper part of the mantle. It is divided into a mosaic of 16 major slabs, or plates.
Lithosphere: The upper layer of the mantle of the Earth is the lithosphere. It is approximately 100 km thick.
Lithospheric plates: A series of rigid slabs (16 major ones at present) that make up the Earth's outer shell. These plates float on top of a softer, more plastic layer in the Earth's mantle. (Also called tectonic plates.)
Litter Layer: Layer of dead organic litter or waste in the process of decomposition.
Littoral: In geography terms, littoral is used to describe the shore. It can also be defined as the region between the limits of low and high tides.
Living Standards: How well people are able to live. It is linked to the amount of money they earn.
Load: The rock and gravel material transported by river or any agent of erosion.
Load: the material transported by a river as bedload, suspended load or dissolved load (in solution).
Loam: The kind of soil which has approximately equal proportions of sand, silt and clay.
Location: Where a place is.
Locational Factors: things that affect where industry decides to set up - usually in the most profitable place.
Loess: A soil made up of small particles that were transported by the wind to their present location.
Logistics: the management and control of the flow of goods and services from the source of production to the market. It involves knowledge, communication, transport and warehousing.
London Docklands: a declining inner city area designated an Enterprise Zone by the government to attract new industry and employment after the closure of the docks.
Longitude: A measure of distance east and west of a line drawn between the North and South Poles and passing through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England. Imaginary lines that cross the surface of the Earth, running from north to south, measuring how far east or west of the prime meridian a place is located.
Longitude: These are the imaginary vertical lines running along the eastern and western hemisphere of the Earth, which are used to measure the distance, location and time.
Longshore Drift: The net movement of gravel, sand, soil and sediments along the coastline is known as longshore drift. This movement occurs under gravity.
Longshore Drift: waves approaching the coast at an angle result in the gradual zig-zag movement of beach materials along the coast.
Loose-Knit Settlement: a settlement with many gaps between its buildings and little, if any, pattern. (Seedispersed settlement pattern).
Low Tide: The lowest point of sea water is known as the low tide.
Lower course: the section of the river near the sea, where deposition is the most important process and the valley becomes wider and flatter.
Low-order Goods/Services: a good or service, usually inexpensive, that people buy on a regular, often daily daily basis - for example, newspapers, bread and milk. Low-order goods and services are usually purchased from shops located in suburban or neighbourhood centres close to where people live. (See corner shop).
lR8 Rice: a high yielding variety of rice developed from hybrids during the Green Revolution.