Sunday, 7 July 2013

N - list of geographical terms and definitions

National Parks: National parks are areas of land declared as public property by a national government, in order to protect them from human exploitation and to develop them for recreational purposes.
Natural Decrease: A decrease in human population, due to a high death rate as compared to the birth rate, is known as natural decrease.
Natural Harbour: a safe place for ships where the shape of the coastline provides shelter from the wind and waves.
Natural Harbour: where the shape of the coastline helps to provide shelter for ships from storms.
Natural Hazards: forces of nature which cause loss of life or damage to crops, animals and property, e.g. storms and floods.
Natural Increase or Decrease: the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. Additional effects of migration are not included.
Natural Increase: An increase in human population, due to a high birth rate and a low mortality rate, is known is natural increase.
Natural Population Change: the difference in number between those who are born and those who die in a year. Additional effects of migration are not included.
Natural Resources: Natural resources are substances that occur naturally in nature and have an economic and commercial value.
Natural Resources: Raw materials which are obtained from the environment, e.g. water, coal or fertile soil.
Natural Routes: river valleys and flat areas were essential transport routes in the days before the railway, car or lorry.
Nature Reserve: A nature reserve is an area that has been created for the preservation of a natural heritage and for the conservation of nature and its components like flora, fauna, geological features and wildlife.
Neap Tide: A neap tide is a tide that occurs in the first and third quarters of the moon, caused when the difference between the high tide and the low tide is the least.
Neighbourhood Unit: the basic building unit for planned new towns, designed to provide people with a safe, traffic-free environment and access to all frequently needed services such as primary schools, shops and clinics within walking distance.
Net Migration: the difference between the number of emigrants and the number of immigrants.
New Commonwealth: the more recent members of Britain’s Commonwealth (ex-colonies, now independent), including countries such as India and Pakistan and the West Indian islands.
New Town: a well-planned, self-contained settlement complete with housing, employment and services.
Newly lndustrialising Country (NIC): LEDCs which are developing manufacturing industries, usually with the help of Trans-national Corporations attracted by cheap labour and Government Incentives. e.g. South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia, Brazil, India.
Nitrate: In geographical terms, nitrate is an inorganic compound made up of one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of oxygen.
Nitrogen Cycle: A cycle of the circulation of nitrogen in the atmosphere, consisting of certain chemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is converted into nitrogen oxides by lightning, rain, and deposition in soil is called the nitrogen cycle. It is collected and metabolized by the bacteria present in the plants and is returned to the atmosphere when organic matter is decomposed by bacteria.
Nitrogen Fixation: Nitrogen fixation is a stage in the nitrogen cycle in which atmospheric nitrogen is converted into ammonia by various bacteria, either naturally or through industrial processes.
Nivation Hollow: Nivation hollow is a shallow depression found in periglacial areas formed by the process of nivation.
Nivation: In geography, soil or rock erosion caused due to the action of frost beneath a snow patch or snowbank is known as nivation.
Nodal Region: A region characterized by a set of places connected to another place by lines of communication or movement.
Nomadic Pastoralist (Herding): livestock farmers who move around for a least part of the year, usually in search of water and grazing for their animals.
Non-renewable Resources: Natural resources that cannot be produced or regenerated, or that are formed at a very slow rate as compared to its consumption, are known as non-renewable resources.
Non-renewable Resources: Resources that can only be used once, e.g. coal, oil.
Non-tariff Barrier: Non-tariff barriers are all trade barriers that restrict international trade, but in a form other than tariffs.
North Atlantic Drift: The north Atlantic drift is a warm ocean current, also known as the Gulf Stream, that flows towards and warms the climate in northwest Europe.
Northing: The difference in latitude, or the distance covered towards the north, from a point of reckoning is called northing.
Notch: an undercut part of the cliff base where wave attack concentrates erosion. See Wave Attack Zone.
Nuclear Energy: Nuclear energy is the energy released through either of the nuclear reactions of nuclear fusion or nuclear fission.
Nuclear family: See Extended Family.
Nucleated Settlement Pattern: a settlement where buildings are clustered around a particular point.
Nuée Ardente: Nuée ardente is a thick cloud of gas that moves rapidly and is often incandescent. It is formed due to a volcanic eruption and comprising hot ashes and other volcanic material.
Nunatak: An isolated mountain or hill which projects through glacial ice and is surrounded by ice sheets is called nunatak.
Nutrient Cycle: The circulation of nutrients in the pathways of an ecosystem that includes their use, transformation, release, and storage by plants is known as the nutrient cycle, in geographical terms.

Nutrient Sink: Nutrient sink is a kind of ecosystem that stocks organic matter and nutrients.